Douglas for the first time. The oft trilled words seem stark and clear. Canto XXXV contrasts the dynamism of Revolutionary America with the "general indefinite wobble" of the decaying aristocratic society of Mitteleuropa. The following canto, Canto LXXXVIII, is almost entirely derived from Benton's book and focuses mainly on John Randolph of Roanoke and the campaign against the establishment of the Bank of the United States. The same examples of good rule are drawn on, with the addition of the Emperor Aurelian.  Most of it was written between 1915 and 1962, although much of the early work was abandoned and the early cantos, as finally published, date from 1922 onwards. Peterson, Leland D. "Ezra Pound: The Use and Abuse of History". Pound was also an important figure for the poets of the Beat generation, especially Gary Snyder and Allen Ginsberg. At the core of this canto, the motif of Leucothoe's veil (kredemnon) resurfaces; this time, the hero has reached the safety of the shore and returns the magic garment to the goddess. The next five cantos (III–VII), again drawing heavily on Pound's Imagist past for their technique, are essentially based in the Mediterranean, drawing on classical mythology, Renaissance history, the world of the troubadours, Sappho's poetry, a scene from the legend of El Cid that introduces the theme of banking and credit, and Pound's own visits to Venice to create a textual collage saturated with Neoplatonic images of clarity and light. De Mailla was a French Jesuit who spent 37 years in Peking and wrote his history there. If we think of it this way, Canto … Of youths and of the old who had borne much; Souls stained with recent tears, girls tender. The Cantos are what Mr Pound himself called them in a passage now excised from the canon, a rag-bag. There are a number of references to vegetation cults and sacrifices, and the canto closes by returning to the world of Byzantium and the decline of the Western Empire. Canto XX opens with a grouping of phrases, words and images from Mediterranean poetry, ranging from Homer through Ovid, Propertius and Catullus to the Song of Roland and Arnaut Daniel. Cantos XXV and XXVI draw on the Book of the Council Major in Venice and Pound's personal memories of the city. After references to politics, economics, and the nobility of the world of the Noh and the ritual dance of the moon-nymph in Hagaromo that dispels mortal doubt, the canto closes with an extended fertility hymn to Dionysus in the guise of his sacred lynx. It is a book-length work, widely considered to be an intense and challenging read. Canto XCVIII reintroduces Ocellus, a fictional character whose name derives from the Latin word for "eye." Canto LXX deals mainly with Adams' time as vice-president and president, focusing on his statement "I am for balance", highlighted in the text by the addition of the ideogram for balance. Canto LV is mainly concerned with the rise of the Tatars and the Tartar Wars, ending about 1200. The last two cantos in the series return to the world of "clear song". JACK ROSS . 2 All quotations from the Cantos are taken from The Cantos of Ezra Pound (London: Faber & Faber, 1964 ) . The canto ends with limitations being placed on Christians, who had come to be seen as enemies of the state. The central images are the invented figure Ra-Set, a composite sun/moon deity whose boat floats on a river of crystal. These include the poet's coming to terms with a sense of artistic failure, and jealousies and hatreds that must be faced and expiated.  Much critical discussion of the poem has focused on the relationship between, on the one hand, the economic thesis on usura, Pound's antisemitism, his adulation of Confucian ideals of government and his attitude towards fascism, and, on the other, passages of lyrical poetry and the historical scene-setting that he performed with his 'ideographic' technique. The line "Some cook, some do not cook, / some things can not be changed" refers to Pound's domestic situation and recurs, in part, in Canto LXXXI. Much of the rest of the canto is concerned with the economic basis of war and the general lack of interest in this subject on the part of historians and politicians; John Adams is again held up as an ideal. There were many repercussions, since this in effect honoured a poet who was under indictment for treason.  Further, when Allen Ginsberg visited him in Rapallo in October 1967, Pound described his previous work to Ginsberg as: "A mess ... stupidity and ignorance all the way through." The two main written sources for the Rock Drill cantos are the Confucian Classic of History, in an edition by the French Jesuit Séraphin Couvreur, which contained the Chinese text and translations into Latin and French under the title Chou King (which Pound uses in the poem), and Senator Thomas Hart Benton's Thirty Years View: Or A History of the American Government for Thirty Years From 1820–1850, which covers the period of the bank wars. This starts from the identification of a nearby mountain with the Chinese holy mountain Taishan and the naming of the moon as sorella la luna (sister moon). Patrick McGuinness, "Ezra Pound: Posthumous Cantos edited by Massimo Bacigalupo review – fresh insights into an epic masterpiece". The sun as Zeus/Helios also features. It opens with a passage in which we see the Odysseus/Pound figure, homecoming achieved, reconciled with the sea-god. Pound, in turn, fitted de Mailla's take on China into his own views on Christianity, the need for strong leadership to address 20th-century fiscal and cultural problems, and his support of Mussolini. However, the home achieved is not the place intended when the poem was begun but is the terzo cielo ("third heaven") of human love. Canto XXI deals with the machinations of the Medici bank, especially with the Medicis' effect on Venice. XXVIII returns to the contemporary scene, with a passage on transatlantic flight. There is an extract from a hymn to Diana from Layamon's 12th-century poem Brut. Ocellus is first introduced in Canto LXXXVII, "Y Yin, Ocellus, Erigena." Ocellus is hence the imagined amalgamation of Eastern Confucianism and Western Neo-Platonism.. Images of light are used variously, and may represent Neoplatonic ideas of divinity, the artistic impulse, love (both sacred and physical) and good governance, amongst other things. The above exchange was in response to Kazin, Alfred. Ezra Pound's Cantos represent some of the highest achievement in 20th century poetry. Neither this canto nor the next are available online, so I’ll assume those interested have a copy of the book. Okay, so it sounds like someone is talking to us about walking onto a ship, loading the thing with a bunch of sheep, and sailing away from some unknown place. For sacrifice, heaping the pyre with goods, A sheep to Tiresias only, black and a bell-sheep. Canto II opens with some lines rescued from the ur-cantos in which Pound reflects on the indeterminacy of identity by setting side by side four different versions of the troubadour poet Sordello: Browning's poem of that name, the actual Sordello of flesh and blood, Pound's own version of the poet, and the Sordello of the brief life appended to manuscripts of his poems. A passage deriving polis from a Greek root word for ploughing also returns us to Pound's belief that society and economic activity are based on natural productivity. It is, in fact, some rescued lines from the earlier version of Canto CXV, and has Pound asking forgiveness for his actions from both the gods and those he loves. Found unfit to stand trial because of the state of his mental health, he was incarcerated in St. Elizabeths Hospital, where he was to remain until 1958. Canto XXXVII then turns to Jackson, Van Buren, Nicholas Biddle, Alexander Hamilton and the Bank War and also contains a reference to the Peggy Eaton affair. This letter contained news of the death in the war of J.P. Angold, a young English poet whom Pound admired. At first, he lived with his daughter Mary in Tyrol, but soon returned to Rapallo. Canto LXXII indicts Italians for not supporting Mussolini and predicts victory for Italian Fascism over the Allies. Rulers who Pound viewed as embodying some or all of these characteristics are adduced: Queen Elizabeth I, Cleopatra, Alexander the Great, as are Napoleon III, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry Dexter White, who stand for everything Pound opposes in government and finance. The opening of Canto LXXXII marks a return to the camp and its inmates. At the core of Canto CV are a number of citations and quotations from the writings of St. Anselm. The rest of the canto consists mainly of paraphrases and quotations from Philostratus' Life of Apollonius. This thread then runs through the appearance of Kuanon, the Buddhist goddess of mercy, the moon spirit from Hagaromo (a Noh play translated by Pound some 40 years earlier), Sigismondo's lover Ixotta (linked in the text with Aphrodite via a reference to the goddess' birthplace Cythera), a girl painted by Manet and finally Aphrodite herself, rising from the sea on her shell and rescuing Pound/Odysseus from his raft. 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